Creating and using a database, Creating and Selecting a Database, Creating a Table, Loading Data into a Table, Retrieving Information from a Table. To make use of this database, you have to use the use command.
The program is a sequence of instructions given to a computer to be executed to perform the desired task. C is a general-purpose language that has been closely associated with the UNIX operating system for which it was developed - since the system and most of the programs that run it are written in C.
Basically the structure of a C program consist of four modules. They are Preprocessor Directives (Includes, Macros), Global declarations (Functions, Variables..), Main function (Program execution start here..), User defined functions (Option to the user).
It is a set of valid characters that are recognized by the C language. Tokens are the smallest individual units of a programming language. Keywords are reserved words for C language, which are used for special purposes. Identifiers include letters and digits.
A variable can be defined as a memory location declared to store any kind of data (which may change many times during program execution). It can also be defined as any quantity/entity which may vary during program execution. Variables are the identiifiers
Data types determines the type of data a variable can hold. Data types are the means to identify the type of data and associated operations of handling it.
Type conversion is the process of converting predefined datatypes into another datatypes in a particular expression. Type conversion is used when constants and variables of different datatypes are mixed in an expression, inorder for getting the correct re
Iteration Statements (Loop Statements)
Iteration statements are also called loop statements. Iteration or loop allows a set of instructions to be executed repeatedly based on some condition. The statements which appear in the source code only once but execute many times, such kind of statements are called loops.
The loop body in the while loop executes as long as the test expression is true. It is also an entry controlled loop. The working of while loop is the same as that of for loop. Here initialization expression will be placed before the while statement. Then evaluate test expression. If it is true loop body and updating expression are executes.
Do while loops are useful for things that want to loop at least once. The do while statement is used less often than the other structured loop statements (for and while). It is an exit controlled loop.
If a programmer has to choose one block of statement among many alternatives, this type of problem can be handled in C programming using the switch statement. When a number of actions are to be taken based on a number of different conditions, the switch statement is the better selection statement.
Array refers to a named list of a finite number of similar data elements. An array is a collection of the same type of data referenced by a common name. It is a collection of contiguous memory locations referenced by a common name. An array is a sequence of the data item of homogeneous value(same type).
A Two-dimensional array is in the form of matrics, which contains rows and columns. A Two-dimensional array is in the form of matrics, which contains rows and columns. A 2D array a[m][n] is a table with m rows and n columns.Â It contains m x n elements. Row index starts from 0 to m-1 and column size starts from 0 to n-1.
The algorithm is a step by step sequence of instruction to solve a particular problem or task. The algorithm can be defined as a well-defined sequence of instructions to solve a particular task. An algorithm can be compared to real life.
The flowchart can be defined as the pictorial representation of an algorithm or It can be defined as a type of tool to explain the flow of the program. The flowchart is helpful in debugging, efficient coding and analysis of a particular program. Drawing a flowchart for complicated programs is very difficult.
Basic And Intermediate Commands For Linux
pwd: To know which directory you are, you can use this command. ls: List all the files in the directory. cd: To go to a particular directory. Eg. cd directory_name. mkdir: To make a directory or folder. rmdir: To delete an empty directory.
Before the beginning of programming, you should understand why c programming is learning. Here I explain to you a simple real-life example. As a driver, the driver is not required to know the working of an automobile. But as an Automobile Mechanic, you should know each and every part of your vehicle, how these parts are interconnected.
printf() and scanf() are the library functions defined in stdio.h header file. if we are using printf and scanf in our program we should use stdio.h header file. printf() function is used to print the ï¿½character, string, float, integer, octal and hexadec
INNER JOIN, LEFT JOIN, LEFT JOIN (Sans Intersection), RIGHT JOIN, RIGHT JOIN (Sans Intersection), FULL JOIN (Outer Join or Full Outer Join), FULL JOIN (Sans Intersection)
Do while loops are useful for things that want to loop at least once. The do while statement is used less often than the other structured loop statements (for and while). It is an exit controlled loop.
This section explains how to generate QR code in PHP.
C Programming language is a basis for many other programming languages such as C++, C#, Objective C, C-shell, Go, PHP, etc. C Programming language is a middle-level programming language. As a middle-level language, it combines both the features of low level and high-level programming languages.
You can use a text editor like Sublime or Notepa++. Dont use word editor. Enter the following code in the editor. Save it as file_name.php (For eg., version.php). Upload the file to the web server and run it in a web server. (hostname/file_name.php)
Email validation is a part of validation in PHP. eregi function is helpful for checking email validation using PHP. We can check the email is added in a proper email format. You can enter any email address and can check the email is valid or not. This tutorial is helpful for knowing more about PHP form validation.
Use the function public_path(). Path to the root folder of the project. //Path to app folder of the project. Path to public folder of the project. echo storage_path('app');
CSRF attacks are the type of attacks where unauthorized commands are performed on behalf of authorized users. Laravel provides an easy method to block CSRF attacks. You should include a CSRF field inside the form of HTML. Any HTML forms of method POST, PUT or DELETE should include the CSRF token.
A controller in MVC (Model View Controller) is responsible for the application flow of the program. Suppose you made a request in MVC pattern like structure, the controller is responsible for returning the response to the view. The controller can different types of values based on the application request. A controller is actually a coordinator between the model and view.
explode and implode function in PHP. explode function in PHP split the string into an array by using the separator. The separator cannot be blank.
If a programmer has to choose one block of statement among many alternatives,this type of problem can be handled in C programming using switch statement. When a number of actions are to be taken based on a number of different conditions, switch statement is the better selection statement.
In this section, discuss How to commonly pass data to all views from the single controller in Laravel.
REST stands for Representational State Transfer. In RESTful APIs, we use HTTP Verbs as actions. GET -> Retrieve Resources. POST -> Create Resources. PUT -> Update Resources. DELETE -> Delete Resources
HTTP Status Codes can be divided categorized as Informational Status Codes(1XX) Success Status Codes (2XX), Redirection Status Codes (3xx), Client Error Status Codes (4xx), Server Error Status Codes (5xx)HTTP Status Codes can be divided categorized as Informational Status Codes(1XX, Success Status Codes (2XX), Redirection Status Codes (3xx), Client Error Status Codes (4xx), Server Error Status Codes (5xx)
Authentication:Â Laravel provides simple inbuilt authentication, which can run by using certain artisan commands. Modularity:Â Modularity is the property of splitting large programs into small programs are called modules. In Laravel, the packages are provided in the form of a modular development approach that is pluggable.
PHP is a web programming language used to develop dynamic web applications. The full form of PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP is a server-side scripting programming language. That means PHP scripts execute only in the server. It is open-source software. It is free to use and download.
All these functions are used to include a file into another file. require() function includes a file and evaluates it.Â require_once() includes the file if and only if is not added before. require_once() includes the file if and only if is not added before. require_once() is more recommended than require() function.
Arrays are used to store multiple values under a common name. An array is a special variable that can store multiple values. array() is used to create an empty array. Suppose if you want to initialize a variable as an empty array, you can use it like this.
The session is a superglobal variable and it is an alternative way to store data across multiple pages or it preserve data across subsequent HTTP requests. The session can be defined as a method to store information on the server, which can be used in the future.
How to Get current version of PHP. You can use a text editor like Sublime or Notepa++. Dont use word editor. Save it as file_name.php (For eg., version.php). Upload the file to the web server and run it in a web server.
Sort functions in PHP are used to sort elements in an array in ascending order or descending order. sort functions in PHP. sort(): Sort the elements in an array using ascending order. rsort(): Sort the elements in an array using descending order.
GET and POST are used to send data from one page to the other page. Or it can be say that GET and POST is used to send data from client server to web server. GET has restriction in data size to send the data. But POST has no restriction in data size to send. The GET method transfers the data using HTTP header, whereas POST method transfer data using HTTP header.
git diff shows the changes in the following functions. git diff shows the changes in the following functions. Changes working tree and the index or a tree. Changes between commits. Changes between commit and a working tree.
git status will show the changes not staged for commit and untracked files.
git status will show the changes not staged for commit and untracked files. Whereas git diff shows the changes between the commits, commits and a working tree, changes between 2 files on disk or 2 blob objects or the changes between the working tree and the index or a tree.
git rm command in git is the inverse of git add. git rm is used to remove files from a git repository. The primary function of git rm is to remove tracked files from git. git rm can be used to remove files from both the working directory and the staging index.
Git Log is used for Formatting the log output, Summary or history or filtering the commit. Git log figures out where the bugs are introduced, to see the project history, revert problematic changes. But the basic git log function is to show the commits. You can alter the function of the git log bypassing many parameters into it.
Class is a collection of related data members and member functions combine into a single unit. A class is declared with the keyword 'class'. A class is a user-defined data type. The variables enclosed in class are called data members and the function enclosed in class are called member functions.
It is a member function having the same name as it’s class and which is used to initialize the objects of that class type with a legal initial value. The compiler call's the constructor when an object is created. We can't define a constructor in the private section, we can define only it in the public section.
Destructors a special member function, that takes the same name of the class name followed by the tilde(~). Destructors are the inverse of constructors. It is automatically called when objects are destroyed. It has the same name as that of the class followed by ~.It doesn't return any value.
C++ programming language fully supports object-oriented concepts. The main characteristics of Object-Oriented Programming languages are Data abstraction, Data Encapsulation, Inheritance, and polymorphism.
Function overloading is the process of defining functions that two or more functions can have the same name, but with different parameters. The secret to overloading is that each redefinition of the function must use. They are different types of arguments and the different number of parameters.
Inheritance is one of the important features of the oop(object-oriented programming). Inheritance is the process by which objects of one class acquire the properties of objects of another class in the hierarchy.
Overloading in C++ allows specifying more than one definition for a function name or an operator in the same scope is called function overloading and operator overloading respectively. An overloaded function can have multiple definitions for the same function name in the same scope. The definition of the function must differ from each other by the types and/or the number of arguments in the argument list.
The DOCTYPE declaration is the first thing in your HTML document and it will be used before the HTML tag. The DOCTYPE declaration is not an HTML tag. declaration is not a HTML tag. tells or instruct the web browser that what html version is using.
Some characters are reserved in HTML. For eg. The less than symbol (<). The greater than symbol (>). If we use to try to output directly in HTML code, the browser will get confused. For solving this we will use HTML entities. HTML entities are used to display reserved characters in HTML.
An HTML consists of basic 3 parts: Opening tag, content and closing tag. An attribute gives additional information about the HTML element and it will specify only in the opening tag of the HTML. Attributes are created using name-value pairs.
An array stores value under a common name. An array is a variable that can hold more than one value at a time. In PHP, array() function is used to create the array. Arrays in PHP can be divided into three. Indexed Arrays, Associative arrays and Multidimensional Arrays.
Instead of writing the same code several times, you can use loops. PHP Loops are used to execute the code again and again as long as the certain condition becomes true. In PHP, we have the following loops- For loop, While loop, Do while loop and foreach loop.
To return a value, use the return statement.
Functions in PHP is divided into two. Built-in Functions and User-Defined Functions. PHP has over more than 1000+ inbuilt functions. It is possible to create your own user-defined functions in PHP. A function is a block of statements that will execute a task.
Yii is a component-based PHP framework for developing modern applications. The Yii stands for yes it is. The name Yii means simple and evolutionary in Chinese. Like most of the other PHP frameworks, YII is also implemented MVC(Model View Controller) architectural pattern.
In codigniter, views will never call directly. They must be loaded by the controller. In an MVC framework, the controller is responsible for loading a particular view. Before going to view section, you must read about controllers in codigniter.
Controller files are located in the application/controllers/ directory. A controller is a class file name that is associated with a URI. To specify a default controller, open your application/config/routes.php and set in this your variable.
Choose a HTML editor. Create a new file with extension .htm or .html Add the code to file (File name should be like index.html or file_name.html). Fill the fields and create the form.
A file is a place on disk, where group of related data is stored. Two different types of data files exist in C. Stream-oriented(standard) data files and System-oriented(Low-level) data files. Stream oriented data files are of two types Data files comprising of consecutive charecters. Unformatted data files.
declaration is not a HTML tag. tells or instructs the web browser that what HTML version is using. It must be the first thing of the web page before the tag HTML is writing. The browser will understand what type of HTML document you are using if you add DOCTYPE to the web page. The DOCTYPE Declaration is not case sensitive.
To exit a group based on a condition, you can use break statement. The break statement terminates the execution of the nearest enclosing do, for, switch, or while statement in which it appears. Control passes to the statement that follows the terminated statement.
It is desirable to skip some statements inside the loop. In such cases continue statement is used. It is desirable to skip some statements inside the loop. In such cases continue statement is used.
retun statement is also a jump statement. The return statement terminates the execution of a function and returns control to the calling function. The return statement terminates the execution of a function and returns control to the calling function.
A structure is a data structure, where individual elements can be of different data types. A single structure may contain data elements of different types, ie it is possible that a single structure to contain integer elements,floating point elements, charecter elements etc. A structure combines logically related data items into a sngle unit.
UNIONS like structures contain members whose individual data types may vary. The syntax of UNION is similar to structure. There is a major distinction between structure and union in terms of storage. ie, in structure each member has its own storage location,whereas all the members of the union use the same location.
Types of parameters: Actual parameters and Formal parameters. The parameters appeared in the function call statements are called Actual parameters. The parameters appeared in the function definition statements are called formal parameters.
A scope in any programming is a part of the program where a defined variable can have access to whole the program or inside the main function or user defined function. Scope rule define the ability to access them in a program - Local Variable and Global Variable
The tokens that trigger some kind of operations are called operators. An operation requires operator and operands (s). Operands are the data on which the specified task is carried out. They are classified in to three according to its operands. Unary (with one operand), Binary (with two operands), Ternary (with three operands)
PHP is mainly focused on three main areas: Server-side scripting, Command-line scripting, Writing desktop applications. Server-side scripting is the main target field of PHP. You need three things to use: PHP Parser, A web browser, A web server.
PHP is a great language to develop web applications rapidly and economically. Like C, C++, Java, etc. PHP can also run as the command line. Many of us were unaware of this. For eg., If you want to send emails to all subscribers in the email list. We cannot do this using a normal web script.
PHP Stands for Hypertext preprocessor. Rasmus Lerdorf is known as the father of PHP. PHP is an open-source scripting language commonly used for web applications. It supports databases like MySql, Sybase, solid, Postgres SQL, etc. Personal Home is the old name of PHP.
PEAR stands for the PHP extension and application repository. PHP is a framework and repository for reusable PHP Components. It consists of all types of PHP Libraries and snippets. It also provides a command-line interface to install packages automatically.
In static websites, Everything is predefined, You cannot change anything on the website, Content cannot change after running the script, Static means are unchanged or constant, Each time the pages are static.
There are three types of errors in PHP. They are notices, warnings, fatal errors. Notices are not displayed to the users. These are non-critical errors. Warnings are more serious errors. Fatal errors cause the termination of script.
require() and include() function in PHP are used to include a file. But the type of error if the file not found is different. include() function sends an error if file not found, whereas require() sends a fatal error.
GET and POST are used to send information from client browser to the web server. The way of sending information is different for both GET and POST. In the case of GET, the information is send in name/value pair and URL encoded. The POST method transfer the information via HTTP Headers.
Created in 1994 by Rasmus Lerdorf. In june of 1995 source code for PHP to public. In 1996, Rasmus introdued PHP/F1. In june PHP/F1 was given a version 2.0 status.
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